Important things to remember are to implement a safety program and then revisit it yearly (at least).
Some items that should be in your home are:
Smoke detectors - the best kind are wired to the grid with a battery backup (in case the power goes out). If you get just the battery only type be sure to test them on a regular basis. Always remember to change the batteries during you annual safety audit. You should have one located on each floor at a minimum near the bedrooms. One in every bedroom and in the hallways would be best.
Carbon Monoxide detectors - have at least one in the house and don't put it right near the kitchen. Ours is in the master bedroom and try not to put it too close to the floor because carbon monoxide is slightly lighter than air and tends to rise with warm air. This is a silent killer, do not overlook this, and make sure to test it on a regular basis and change the battery during your yearly safety audit.
Fire extinguisher - located in the kitchen and the garage and make sure you get one rated for kitchen use. If you douse a grease fire with water you just went from bad to worse. This should be checked annually and replaced if needed.
GFI plugs - at least one per circuit (or according to your building code) in any area where water and electricity could mix...like a kitchen or a bathroom. Test these once a month to make sure they are working by tripping the recepticle with the test button.
Escape ladder - if you have second floor bedrooms, get those escape ladders that roll up and fasten to the sill for each bedroom. If there is a fire in the stairway and you don't have a fire escape (which most houses don't) these simple inexpensive ladders could save you or a loved one from a painful death.
Have a plan - go over escape routes with your family. Make sure they know what to do and where to go in an emergency. Go over this plan and practice it with your family...make SURE everyone understands it to the letter.
Practice and teach - make sure everyone knows how to operate, test and maintain all of the safety equipment I have just listed.
Maintain! This is key!!! A smoke detector with a dead battery is useless.
Go over your plan regularly....BE PREPARED!
...that is all.